Tuesday, May 21, 2013

Let There be Light

It’s early evening as I write this, and getting a little dim in my office...so just now I leaned forward and with a small movement of my hand turned on the lamp on my desk. Lovely, clear light now floods this part of the room, strong enough to read by several feet away. Electricity—it’s a beautiful thing. Had this been 1813 rather than 2013, I would have had to do a great deal more to achieve this amount of light.

In the early 19th century, light came from fire. Period. That fire might flicker and bounce at the end of a candle—perhaps a tallow candle made from sheep or beef fat, which tended to smoke and sputter, could lend an odor of eau de barnyard to a room, and not give forth very much light. Tallow candles required snuffing—that is, their wicks had to periodically be trimmed as the candles burned in order for the candle to burn properly—with snuffers, which looked like an odd pair of scissors (see image above).

Or it might shine from a more expensive beeswax candle and provide a much steadier, longer-lasting light that didn’t require snuffing and smelled much more pleasant than a sheepy tallow candle.

Candles might sit in holders on a table or desk, singly or in many-branched candelabras. Or they might be in sconces attached to the wall, perhaps with a plate of polished metal or a mirror to reflect and increase the light they gave. Or they might perch in a chandelier (from the French word for candle) and give light from above...but alas, also drip on people and objects below them.

However, candles were expensive and heavily taxed—one pence a pound for tallow candles, 3 ½ pence a pound for beeswax. So for the very poorest, their light might come from rushlights—basically a rush (a marsh plant) dipped in drippings or some other greasy substance—that could be made for free, but didn’t provide much illumination.

Or the fire that was giving you light might come from an oil lamp, in its most basic form consisting of a chamber to hold some type of oil and a wick that served to draw up the oil and burn...but by the 19th century had grown fairly sophisticated, with special holders to lengthen and shorten the wick and so provide more or less light. Plant oils like olive oil and palm oil might be used, but whale oil was probably the most popular oil for lighting—not only in houses, but in businesses, theaters, and on the streets, where lamplighters made their rounds every evening and morning to light and then extinguish streetlamps.

But all this would change in 1807...and even more dramatically in 1812. Stop by in two weeks to learn how!

In the meanwhile, don’t forget that our Young Bluestockings Book Club read of Pride and Prejudice is coming up next week—get your copy out, and have fun spending time with the Bennett sisters and Colin Firth Mr. Darcy!


Anastasia said...

Thank you for this post. It's hard to imagine how people managed without electric lights. You've mentioned theaters using oil. I'm very curious how they did stage lighting in early 19th century? Do you know of any good resources on that?

Marissa Doyle said...

You're welcome, Mrs Bertin! Ackermann did some nice interior views of the major theaters ca. 1808-1812, and lighting appears to have come from a combination of multiple chandeliers (at Covent Garden, they hung from brackets attached to the outsides of the balconies)and lamps with reflectors at the front edge of the stage--footlights, really! Here are a couple of links--Covent Garden: http://www.printsplace.co.uk/PS/Store/Product/New_Covent_Garden_Theatre__1810__from__Ackermann_s_Microcosm_of_London__-97414
Sadlers Wells: http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&biw=1014&bih=631&tbm=isch&tbnid=VKw5kwJZvDbSUM:&imgrefurl=http://www.bridgemanart.com/asset/32966/Rowlandson-T.1756-1827-Pugin-A.C.1762-1832/Sadlers-Wells-Theatre-from-Ackermann%27s-&docid=bigiMHo-EFQncM&imgurl=http://images.bridgemanart.com/cgi-bin/bridgemanImage.cgi/400wm.BAL.541630.7055475/32966.jpg&w=400&h=305&ei=VG-bUY-NF8bL0AG5_oBo&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=140&page=1&tbnh=144&tbnw=177&start=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:89&tx=114&ty=107

Helena said...

Every time we have a power cut and I try to read by candlelight I'm always amazed anyone got anything done before electricity (or gas). Even grouping several candles doesn't really produce adequate light for reading or writing or anything intricate.

It makes me admire writers (poets as well as authors) who maintained a good output regardless.